Header IOTA Ecosystem

This article is a translation of the German IOTA Beginner’s Guide by Schmucklos.


BiiLabs was founded in November 2017 in Taipei, Taiwan. BiiLabs Co.Ltd. is a blockchain-as-a-service (BaaS) startup. BiiLabs is dedicated to developing distributed ledger technology to address challenges in the Internet of Everything era, including smart cities and energy management. Its core technologies support the digital transformation of various industries and solve critical customer problems on issues such as trust, security, growth, and efficiency. Including the machine economy, over 5 trillion transactions and microtransactions will occur daily by 2020. BiiLabs aims to become a leading technology provider in the Internet of Everything space.

Primarily, BiiLabs uses IOTA technology, but for some complex cases, BiiLabs also provides its own Layer 2 solutions to solve data storage, lack of smart contracts, or transaction speed issues, if necessary.

BiiLabs, like the IOTA Foundation and quite a few other companies, is a member of INATBA, a global forum for developers and users of distributed ledger technology. INATBA brings together industry, small and medium enterprises, startups, policymakers, international organizations, regulators, civil society, and standardization bodies to support, establish, and expand DLT and blockchain across multiple industries.

BiiLabs projects in this guide:

Source: BiiLabs

Technology focus:

DLT Research

BiiLabs is one of the pioneers of Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) developers with smart contract engine based on DAG-based systems. These are just regular contracts, except for the fact that their terms are stored in the distributed ledger and are machine readable automatically verifiable by all peers.

Custom API

BiiLabs is based on DLT and delivers the service including digital ID, ledger and settlement, micro-payment, digital forensics and much more by providing and securing the sandbox for testing. There is also an option to provide custom APIs.

Transaction Security

With the distributed system, all data would be cryptographically secured on multiple nodes so that even sensitive data can be transferred safely and securely.

Business scalability

BiiLabs enables micro and nano transaction recording using distributed ledger technology and provides developers with a range of innovative tools for IoT applications.

Potential application areas:


Using distributed ledger technology to enable new frontiers of the trust-based economy. For example, DLT can be used to effortlessly lease products (e.g., home appliances, tools, drones, e-bikes, etc.) and resources (e.g., computer storage, computing power, Wi-Fi bandwidth, etc.).


Elements of smart cities include smart building, smart charging, and smart mobility. However, massive facilities incur huge centralization costs, whether power generation or transmission. Therefore, the concept of smart energy communities is to ensure self-sufficiency through “smart grids” and develop an innovative business model using cryptocurrencies as incentives.


Certificates, which are the proof of an individual, have a big problem with reliability, and blockchain technology can make good use of distributed ledgers to create the trust ecosystem for certificates, not to mention more efficient management in digital forms.

Supply Chain

Supply chain managements value transparency, authorized participation, and immutable records. Therefore, DLT’s role here is to strengthen the trust relationship between consumers, producers, transporters, retailers, and public institutions as part of the integration of global trade.

Machine economy

A revolutionary peer-to-peer network is freeing itself from transaction fees and diving further into a machine-to-machine world. In other words, machines with independent wallets could automatically transact with non-humans, meaning a new machine-centric business model is emerging.

Digital identity

In the future, centralization in digital identity hardly works with the alarming awareness of self-sovereignty. As a result, DLT would be the best alternative technology to realize online voting, medical record management, and data exchange between cities.

Data Marketplace

DLT could fulfill the need for self-governance, indicating that users can control their personal data and ensure the traceability of private information at will. We can assume that there will be a new marketplace for data.

One problem BiiLabs can solve is tamper-proof storage of large data sets.

The IOTA Tangle is not a data store for larger data sets, so it relies on third-party storage solutions for many use cases, such as Amazon AWS or Microsoft Azure cloud storage.

At this point, however, there’s a big problem: You can’t trust these third-party providers, so how can you ensure that data hasn’t been altered?

Although the Tangle itself is not a data store, it is still the solution to this problem. The Tangle is an immutable distributed ledger that can be used to store a cryptographic hash (footprint) of the data set being stored, along with a timestamp in the Tangle. This hash can be used to prove at any time that the data set has remained unchanged. In addition, by using a standard encryption method, it is possible for the data to remain confidential and only viewable by authorized users with a decryption key. This authorization can also be revoked if needed.

Depending on the use case, BiiLabs offers its customers an interaction of the Alfred API (software tool for PoE) with access to Amazon AWS, hardware (Sentinel Appliance) for recording data and IOTA technology to prove the existence of the data and secure it against manipulation.

BiiLabs provides its customers with both certification of the existence of stored data and its authenticity

Certification of data in the distributed ledger ~ Proof-of-Existence (PoE)

All records generate unique digital footprints (hash value) in the IOTA Tangle along with a timestamp. This hash value can be used to provide proof-of-existence (PoE) of the data due to its verifiability. However, this proof does not guarantee the authenticity of the data itself. Since the data may also be stored externally (e.g., AWS), only the existence of the data can be proven.

Raw data on distributed ledgers ~ data authenticity

Assuming correct data size, raw data can be written directly to the IOTA tangle, therefore data manipulation due to decentralization is extremely difficult not only in terms of footprint. In this case, no storage solution is needed with the help of a third party. If necessary, IOTA Permanodes could be used as needed to store transaction data for a longer period of time.


Official Homepage

Original source


Header IOTA Ecosystem

This article is a translation of the German IOTA Beginner’s Guide by Schmucklos.


Hyperledger Bridge

Hyperledger is an open source collaboration under the umbrella of LF Edge. The goal of its development is to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies. Hyperledger is by far the largest permissioned blockchain project in the industry, but also among smaller companies and startups. It is a global collaboration developed and driven by the Linux Foundation (LF Edge) and includes leaders in finance, banking, Internet of Things, supply chain, manufacturing and technology. In addition to Linux LF Edge, IBM and Intel, the driving forces behind Hyperledger include Fujitsu, Oracle, SAP, VMware, Cisco, Red Hat, Bosch and Samsung.

Important: The project itself requires approval and is only accessible to a closed community. Anyone who wants access to the project must first become a member of the Foundation.


Hyperledger can currently (Sep 2019) be divided into the following projects that require approval:

  • Hyperledger Besu: Open source Ethereum client developed under the Apache 2.0 license and written in Java. It can run on Ethereum’s public network or on networks with private permissions, as well as on test networks such as Rinkeby, Ropsten, and Görli.
  • Hyperledger Burrow: Burrow is a smart contract engine. It is the first of its kind, released in December 2014. It provides a modular blockchain client with a permissioned smart contract interpreter built in part to Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) specifications.
  • Hyperledger Fabric: A permissioned distributed ledger framework that offers modularity, versatility and privacy options to meet a wide range of industry use cases from finance to healthcare to supply chain and more. It enables, using the Docker container platform, smart contracts to be implemented easily and flexibly.
  • Hyperledger Indy: Designed specifically for decentralized identity. It provides tools, libraries and reusable components to create and use independent digital identities based on blockchains or other distributed ledgers for interoperability.
  • Hyperledger Iroha: A user-friendly, modular, distributed blockchain platform with its own unique consensus and ordering service algorithms, a comprehensive authorization model, and support for multiple signatures.
  • Hyperledger Sawtooth: A modular platform for building, deploying, and running Distributed Ledgers. It includes a novel consensus algorithm, Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET), which targets large, distributed validator populations with minimal resource consumption.
  • Hyperledger Aries: Infrastructure for blockchain-based peer-to-peer interactions. It provides a common, reusable, and interoperable toolkit for initiatives and solutions focused on creating, transmitting, and storing verifiable digital credentials.
  • Hyperledger Transact: A platform-independent library that handles the execution of smart contracts, including all aspects of scheduling, transaction dispatch and management.
  • Hyperledger Quilt: Provides interoperability between ledger systems by implementing ILP, a primary payment protocol used to transfer value between distributed and non-distributed ledgers.
  • Hyperledger Ursa: A shared cryptographic library that allows individuals (and projects) to avoid duplicating other cryptographic work and hopefully increase security.
  • Hyperledger Caliper: A blockchain benchmark tool that allows users to measure the performance of a given blockchain implementation against a set of predefined use cases.
  • Hyperledger Cello: Aims to integrate the on-demand, “as-a-service” delivery model into the blockchain ecosystem to reduce the effort required to create, manage and terminate blockchains.
  • Hyperledger Explorer: Can view, access, provision or query blocks, transactions and associated data, network information, chain-codes and transactions, and any other relevant information stored in the ledger.
  • Hyperledger Grid: A WebAssembly-based project for building supply chain solutions. It includes a set of libraries, data models, and SDKs to accelerate development for supply chain smart contracts and client interfaces.

IOTA and Hyperledger

Hyperledger’s permissioned data functionalities have been combined with IOTA’s permissionless data functionalities.

When the IOTA Foundation joined the Linux Foundation to work together on LF Edge, among other things, it was already known that the IF had been working for some time on an internal Hyperledger bridge (Connector) to drive the distribution of the permissionless IOTA functions for data and value transfer further. This development work has now been successfully completed and the IOTA technology has been migrated into the Hyperledger ecosystem.

As the Hyperledger Fabric project becomes more popular for supply chain and asset tracking projects in the industry, the IOTA Foundation introduces the IOTA Connector, which can be used to mirror data from Hyperledger into the Tangle. This allows Hyperledger to leverage all available IOTA features such as royalty-free payments using IOTA tokens, encrypted data transactions, and public / private message chains (IOTA Streams). At this point, the IF considers Hyperledger Fabric DLT – where all data is initially stored and managed – as the primary source of truth.

The symbiosis of these very different technologies allows the IOTA Tangle to act as a connector between different permissioned Hyperledger Fabric-based systems in different enterprises. As Hyperledger is applied more to internal enterprise operations, the interplay of the two technologies enables tamper-proof external data exchange for permission-requiring data silo-based systems, plus direct monetary compensation (IOTA tokens) for this data is now possible if desired.

As a very exciting and great result of this newly gained data exchange capability, any Hyperledger Smart Contract (called Chaincode) execution can now trigger a request to the IOTA Tangle. This process allows Hyperledger Fabric smart contract execution results to be stored / updated on the Tangle and payments to be made between IOTA wallet holders. It is also possible to read data from the Tangle and trigger Hyperledger Fabric’s smart contract execution based on the retrieved transaction data or payment confirmation. This opens up endless possibilities for a variety of new applications.

Notice: Smart contracts in Hyperledger Fabric can be written in multiple programming languages. For the two most common ones, IOTA connectors are provided in Go and JavaScript (Github).


This is a very big step for the IOTA Foundation towards becoming a standard transfer protocol in the industry. I always compare Hyperledger to the intranet, which can only be used within your own company. In contrast, IOTA technology (IOTA Streams, Micropayments, …) can also be used for secure external data exchange with other companies.

This interoperability and the use of smart contract technology will result in a variety of new applications in the future, and the acceptance of IOTA technology in the industry will thus receive an enormous boost.

More Details

Official Github

Integrate Hyperledger Fabric with the IOTA Tangle – IF


Original source

Solution Partners

Header IOTA Ecosystem

Solution Partners

This article gives an overview over some of the most important solution partners of the IF. There are a lot more partnerships, some of them still unannounced. You can find more solution partners of the IF on the Official Homepage.


BiiLabs is dedicated to developing distributed ledger technology to address challenges in the Internet of Everything era, including smart cities and energy management. Its core technologies support the digital transformation of various industries and solve critical customer problems on issues such as trust, security, growth, and efficiency.

Primarily, BiiLabs uses IOTA technology, but for some complex cases, BiiLabs also provides its own Layer 2 solutions to solve data storage, lack of smart contracts, or transaction speed issues, if necessary.

Source: BiiLabs

Technological focus:

  • DLT Research
  • Custom API
  • Transaction Security
  • Business scalability

More Details

Introduction to BiiLabs

Official Homepage


bIOTAsphere is a self-sustaining, non-profit collaboration for various communities to interact, innovate and inspire and be part of the IOTA revolution. bIOTAsphere is primarily aimed at government institutions, businesses, and universities around the world that want to explore and bring to market solutions for distributed energy, carbon reduction, smart buildings, auto insurance, and the Internet of Things.

By leveraging the secure, open and immutable IOTA protocol and its integrated currency, bIOTAsphere, aims to positively impact the lives and infrastructure in which we work, rest and play.

Primary goals of bIOTAsphere

  • Facilitate the commercialization of IOTA applications.
  • Collaborate globally to demonstrate how the DAG-based Tangle can solve some of the world’s large and complex problems
  • Demonstrate innovation in existing business models through “proof of concept” applications
  • Collaborate with industry leaders to further drive these innovations
Source: The bIOTAsphere

More Details

Official Homepage

Senseering / RWTH Aachen

It all started in 2018 when Daniel Trauth and his team launched a new research topic:

The goal is to create audit trails in decentralized supply chains and connect the IoT to industry, enabling new ways of machine to machine (M2M) interaction. The machines will be self-managed, autonomously optimizing their own manufacturing processes in real time and securely storing all collected data.

The proof of concept will create a digital twin for each workpiece or product, encrypt the data and store it in the Tangle via IOTA MAM. Users or buyers of these products will be able to interact with the data in a trusted system and verify the integrity of the product (“certificate of origin”). For this reason, a diverse team of highly motivated individuals from the fields of computer science, mechanical engineering, psychology, business administration, and product design was assembled for this project.

The WZL tests their programmed applications directly on a real on-site fineblanking machine. At the beginning of the production process, a previously purchased metal sheet is pulled from a roll and fed to a roll system, which compresses and aligns the sheet to a uniform predefined height for further processing. In the next production step, a fineblanking press produces up to four parts per second from the metal sheet.

The entire production process must be constantly monitored in order to detect poor material quality, tool wear, problems in the process or the environment in good time and to be able to take countermeasures. To date, samples are taken from the production line every few hours for manual quality control (measurement, surface finish, etc.). This is very time-consuming and may result in several hours of production of inferior products that must now be reworked or scrapped.

Source: IOTA Evangelist Network

Engineers have often tried to describe the relationships between materials and tools in formulas for certain adjustable process parameters, but some machine parameters cannot be calculated theoretically and must be determined experimentally instead. The WZL combines the engineers’ theoretical formulas with physics-based data from the manufacturing process to provide a more accurate picture of production data in real time. In addition, all data collected can be stored for each product produced. (Digital twin)

A large number of additional sensors (e.g. image and video feeds, acoustic, vibration, force, displacement and temperature sensors) are attached to the machines themselves in order to read and record as much data as possible directly from the machine.

Additional machine-to-machine communication also enables micropayments and subscription models. Data from a digital twin can be sold on a data marketplace for a very small amount of money.

More Details

The Industrial IOTA Lab Aachen – Medium

Manufacturing Economy – Medium

Monetization of manufacturing data – Medium

MachineDataMarketplace.NRW – Medium

Senseering’s MyDataEconomy Platform – Medium

Research Projects

Header IOTA Ecosystem

Research Projects

This article gives an overview over some of the most important research projects the IF takes part in / that are using IOTA’s technology.

ORCHESTRA: Coordinating and synchronising multimodal transport improving road, rail, water and air transport through increased automation and user involvement

Programme: EU Horizon 2020

Grants (IF): 249.125 €

ORCHESTRA is about the orchestration of traffic management in the emergence of connected and autonomous vehicles.

ORCHESTRA will leverage two particular strengths of the IOTA technology: the immutable and scalable ledger, and the decentralised identities. To achieve multimodal traffic management and orchestration, i.e. data needs to be shared seamlessly. A distributed ledger can be leveraged to move data across domains, from sea to road, to rail, to flight, affirming the data provenance, immutability and guaranteeing auditability.

Managing movements of people, particularly in times of COVID-19 and other emergency situations, requires efficiently rerouting them across different modes of transport and without facing the challenges and security risks of sharing their personal information across different transport systems. To address this issue, decentralised identities and credentials represent the best way to empower travellers with control over their data. Verifiable credentials also allow travel documents and permits (tickets) to be quickly re-issued to specific identities and verified by different transport operators and even machines without ad hoc integration of multiple ticketing systems.

Source: IOTA Foundation

More Details

Future of Transportation Infrastructure: ORCHESTRA Consortium and IOTA – IF

Project Overview – EU Commission

TRADE: Trustworthy Autonomous Driving by Dezentralized Authentication and Authorization

Programme: KMU-Innovationsoffensive IKT

Together with its partners ETO GRUPPE and Technische Hochschule Ingolstadtfilancore is researching and developing a holistic vehicle-to-everything base layer to enable overarching, interoperable and secure interconnectivity of Automotive Cyber Systems (ACS) based on decentralized IOTA Identities. Through decentralized identity TRADE seeks to address major concerns and demonstrates a holistic cybersecurity approach for the first time, with

  • interoperability across a heterogeneous provider landscape,
  • data souvereignty and transfer between network boundaries, and
  • efficiency and scalability,

for an open, yet controlled ACS ecosystem.

More Details

Distributed Ledger Technology for Automotive Cyber Systems – Medium

Project Overview – BMBF

Dig_it: A Human-centred Internet of Things Platform for the Sustainable Digital Mine of the Future

Programme: EU Horizon 2020

Grants (IF): 155.000 €

On May 19, 2020 the IF was awarded as one of the recipients of the Dig_it grant, a new collaborative project funded under the EU Horizon 2020 programme. The goal of the project is to collect data from the mining industry using an Industrial Internet of Things Platform and transform it into knowledge and actions aimed at improving the health and safety of the workers of this industry as well as the industry impact on the environment.

Dig it
Source: IOTA Foundation

More Details

IOTA joins Dig_it – IF

Project Overview – EU Commission

ENSURESEC: End-to-end Security of the Digital Single Market’s E-commerce and Delivery Service Ecosystem

Programme: EU Horizon 2020

Grants (IF): 441.250 €

The projects goal is to enhance citizens’ resilience to threats and their trust in e-commerce companies. These threads range from maliciously modifying web e‑commerce applications or rendering them unavailable to legitimate customers, to delivery issues or fraud committed by insiders or customers.

The IF will provide the technology (IOTA Tangle) and the expertise to build such an immutable decentralized audit trail infrastructure. IF will develop a number of interfaces to IOTA Streams that will make it easier to generate and share required log informations. ENSURESEC will leverage the IOTA Identities to guarantee the authenticity of information and of the connected physical assets and stakeholders.

Source: IOTA Foundation

The project consists of the following main modules:

  • Prevention by design
  • Detection by monitoring
  • Response and mitigation of threats and incidents
  • Recovery of compromised interfaces
  • Resilient-oriented situational awareness
  • Training of SMEs and their citizen clients

More Details


Official Homepage

Project Overview – EU Commission


Programme: EU Horizon 2020

Grants (IF): 440.437,50 €

+CityxChange is a smart city project, that has been granted funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme in the call for ‘Smart cities and communities.’ In the project the cities of Trondheim, Limerick, Alba Iulia, Písek, Sestao, Smolyan and Võru will experiment how to become leading cities integrating smart positive energy solutions. Through the use of digital services, the quality of life for and together with the citizens shall be improved, more energy produced than consumed, and experiences with cities across Europe exchanged to learn faster together.

The outcome of the project will be:

  • Decision support tools which enable informed decisions to be made by all stakeholders in the community
  • An approach to creating a Positive Energy Block through energy reduction and efficiency measures, local renewables, local storage, flexibility and peer-to-peer energy trading
  • Top-down community engagement driven by the local authority and bottom-up citizen engagement to inform, educate and drive behavioural change
Source: Positive CityxChange H2020

More Details

Official Homepage

Developers community update: IOTA & +CityxChange – IF

Project Overview – EU Commission

AI and DLT-based Predictive Maintenance System

Funded by: NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization)

NEDO is Japan’s largest public management organization promoting r&d as well as the deployment of industrial, energy, and environmental technologies. The goal of the project is to develop technology to strengthen the security, longevity, and durability of critical infrastructure assets in Japan and abroad.

By adding artificial intelligence and the IOTA Tangle technology to Risk-Based Maintenance (RBM) Systems deployed in power plants, energy plants, industrial plants, petrochemicals, and oil refining plants, the group hopes to capture a large share of the domestic social infrastructure conservation market.

The project will develop a cloud-based SaaS software with the following capabilities:

  • A decentralized database using IOTA’s distributed ledger technology
  • Artificial intelligence system developed
  • Digitizing and sharing infrastructure data
Source: IOTA Foundation

More Details

IOTA Joins Project Funded by Japanese National R&D agency NEDO to Build AI and DLT-based Predictive Maintenance System – IF

Christian Doppler Laboratory for DLT Research

Partners:  Institute for Information Systems Engineering (TU Wien), Pantos

On Nov 26, 2020 the IF announced their partnership with the new Christian Doppler Laboratory Blockchain Technologies for the Internet of Things (CDL-BOT). The CDL-BOT is a long-term research project expected to run for seven years.

For the IF, this project is suited to not only extend research on the IOTA Tangle and its applications in the Internet of Things itself, but also to look beyond the IOTA protocol to further the European DLT ecosystem. This requires novel mechanisms to enable DLT interoperability, ranging from cross-blockchain token transfers or atomic swaps to cross-blockchain smart contract invocations and interactions.

Source: Pantos

More Details

IOTA, Pantos and TU Wien Announce Opening of Christian Doppler Laboratory for DLT Research – IF

ALFRIED: Automated and connected driving in logistics at the Friedrichshafen test site

Inner-city goods transport and factory traffic are a challenge for the complex traffic system. Often, these transports are perceived as a hindrance or even a danger for other road users. Improved traffic flow can increase traffic efficiency for the safety of all road users, reduce congestion and achieve positive environmental effects for affected residents. Automated and Connected Driving and Intelligent Transportation Systems provide solutions for this.


The goal of ALFRIED is the further development of the complex mobility system of the city of Friedrichshafen ( with a focus on infrastructure and smart city control center. As a medium-sized German center, Friedrichshafen offers an excellent field of application for a mobility concept that can be transferred to many cities and regions. Automated and Connected Driving, data integration, route optimization, disruption prediction as well as intelligent real-time information are to optimize inner-city goods journeys between plant locations in such a way that savings in journeys and / or the associated emissions are achieved and the inner-city traffic volume is relieved.

More Details

Official Homepage

Smart Grid Infrastructure

Header Marketplaces

Smart Grid Infrastructure

Due to the distributed nature of local energy markets, the case for developing trustworthy energy trading platforms with transparent data sharing and payment digital infrastructure is becoming more clear. A DLT-based digital infrastructure can guarantee the audit-ability of exchanged data, the provenance of renewable energy supply, and process real-time and automated value transfer on a pay per use basis.

Smart Grid Infrastructure
Source: IOTA Foundation
Source: The Agile Fractal Grid Media

More Details

IOTA-Powered Smart Grid Infrastructure – IF

Open Marketplace

Header Marketplaces

This article is a translation of the German IOTA Beginner’s Guide by Schmucklos.

Open MarketplaceA decentralized marketplace for smart cities

Open Marketplace is a project launched by the IOTA community in Spring 2020 with the goal of empowering local communities in terms of collaboration, commerce, and more.

Open Marketplace

The market

Regardless of whether you run a local business or an online store, there are no costs or transaction fees on the Open Marketplace. You can easily create and run your store in an open application.


In the decentralized Open Source Marketplace, many open applications can be used and combined. All of them are decentralized and can be self-hosted or hosted via Open Cloud. Open applications means that anyone can use them for free. The source code of the applications is public and all builds can be downloaded for free. Any developer has the permission to use or modify the code as they wish.

The following applications are to be developed for the Open Marketplace: Marketplace, Shop, Delivery, Chat, Data Marketplace, News, Discount, Social Networking.

Various ideas are already bubbling up to bring these envisioned applications to life; for example, local purchases could be delivered by drones in the future. A proof of concept for the Open Marketplace is already being worked on, and the team is also participating in an IOTA hackathon with the theme “Build a Marketplace of Devices with IOTA” to gain experience and ideas in the process.

The PoC is expected to cover the following features for now:

  • Represent delivery and loading operations of a delivery drone in a simulated environment – but with real data and payments.
  • Drone manufacturers or operators of a drone delivery service should be able to deliver packages to customers on autopilot and earn money.
  • The drone should be able to use one of the many smart charging stations to fill its batteries and pay for electricity – completely automated.

Another idea is to create a decentralized and privacy-protected chat application. There is already a first prototype.

Interested developers and can actively participate on Github.

Source: Open Marketplace Applications


Original source

I3 Marketplace

Header Marketplaces

This article is a translation of the German IOTA Beginner’s Guide by Schmucklos.

I3 Marketplace

I3 is the name of an open consortium of technology leaders with the goal of creating IoT communities, including smart cities, where device owners are an active part of the community. Individual IoT communities will be given the opportunity to network with each other to form larger communities. Applications and data merchants will be given access to these IoT-based communities and offer their value-added services to enable the improvement of daily life in the city of Los Angeles and beyond.

I3 also stands for the Intelligent IoT Integrator, that is the core software developed to serve as a vendor-independent data management tool that sits between the IoT device and the IoT application to manage the many IoT data streams between the independent IoT devices.

The I3 Vision

  • The I3 system envisions a world where application developers, can access the multitude of sensors that others have deployed and connected to the network.
  • The I3 system envisions a world where sensor owners can take the initiative and deploy smart sensors in anticipation of an emerging and independent application market that will leverage their data for the benefit of its users.
  • The I3 system envisions a world where companies can easily integrate data from different types of sensors from many different manufacturers to improve their internal decision-making processes. By increasing data transparency, advanced data analytics and artificial intelligence processes will have a better view of the real world because they will be able to map our physical world as a digital twin.
  • The I3 system envisions a world where data flows seamlessly between data producers and data consumers, a world where data systems can easily adapt to policies and decisions.

Tasks of I3

  • Work with suppliers to create an environment that facilitates testing and evaluation of IoT network components.
  • Create and evaluate concepts and tools needed to establish and manage trust in a community of independent device owners.
  • Disseminate software / information to promote collaborative development and networking among IoT communities.
  • Conduct activities designed to accelerate the realization of IoT-based smart systems.

The goals of I3

  • Integrate software from multiple sources to create a citywide IoT test / demonstration system.
  • To create a test / demonstration system that can demonstrate functionality, perform operational testing, and generate market data needed to evaluate return on investment (ROI).
  • Expanding our understanding of IoT marketplaces and privacy by evaluating concepts. For example, promoting or preventing data flows, data ownership, incentives, and trust.
  • Creating an open source product from the core I3 software that can be distributed to other community-based IoT devices to promote systemic evolution from a common foundation.
  • Develop networking capabilities that enable diverse and independent I3 data streams to interact and share data effectively. > An IoT data marketplace.
  • Encourage IoT device deployment and data sharing by independent device owners by addressing security and privacy needs to complement an incentive and trust-building system.
  • Provide application developers access to a compilation of real-time IoT data drivers as needed.
  • Encouraging greater application-side use of data streams by AI systems and applications to enable data merchants to make smarter decisions.
  • Creating a virtualized representation of the IoT device for a network infrastructure to protect the network from damage caused by devices with uncertain origin.

The I3 Marketplace

In order to realize the vision and goals they set for themselves, researchers at the University of Southern California (USC) created the I3 Marketplace for buying and selling data. Due to its design, both humans and IoT devices can participate in trading on this I3 marketplace. The marketplace does not store data, but only acts as an intermediary for selling information. Buyers of data or data streams, thus need a place to store their data and need to be sure that this data has not been tampered with.

USC researchers therefore experimented with the IOTA protocol, among others, to see if and how this scheme could work with this technology. IOTA’s distributed ledger technology enables this desired tamper-proof transfer of data, plus values (IOTA Tokens) can be transferred without a fee.

I3 marketplace users can now use the IOTA Tangle to store their data immutably. In the future, there will be more research, experiments and improvements around IoT and the integration of various devices and sensors in close collaboration. S. D. Nelson (“Nelson”) of the IOTA Foundation will report on this in further blog articles.

More Details

Intro to IoT, I3, & IOTA – IF

Connecting an IoT Device to I3 and IOTA – IF

How to build your own IoT device – Github

Original source

Telco Asset Marketplace

Header Marketplaces

This article is a translation of the German IOTA Beginner’s Guide by Schmucklos.

Telco Asset Marketplace

TMForum is a non-profit industry association with the mission to drive the digital transformation and thus the future growth of its partners from the telecommunications sector. In short, TMForum paves the way for its partners to explore new technologies and business models.

In May 2019, TMForum unveiled a project called “Blockchain-based Telecom Infrastructure Marketplace” with the intention to use distributed ledger technology to create a telecom infrastructure marketplace. This marketplace is expected to help create more agile, flexible, and on-demand business and procurement models, allowing companies to communicate and transact directly with each other by eliminating intermediaries. In addition, the marketplace is expected to help build trust and transparency across value chains and ecosystems between players.

The two major communications service providers (CSPs), Orange and Vodafone, have outlined the business challenge and are working with participants Infosys, IOTA, Nokia, and r3 to solve it, in addition to also working with Stanford University to research smart contracts. Two use cases are of particular interest to CSPs, these are: Expanding existing infrastructure or acquiring capacity for a temporary event (e.g., large-scale events) and opening business opportunities in a country (or location) where there is no or incomplete infrastructure.

Detailed description of the problems to be solved

All large CSPs nowadays provide their own required infrastructure to sell their services to the end user. These are for example assets like cell towers, WLAN infrastructures, frequency bands, fiber networks or even aerial drones at large events. All these assets are needed to establish connectivity, even in remote rural areas with few potential customers.

The problem in these rural areas is that the infrastructure provided is not fully utilized, which means that the revenues from having not enough customers do not cover the ongoing operating costs. In urban areas, it is sometimes the other way around, where the CSP may have overestimated the capacity of its infrastructure, resulting in networks collapsing under the flood of data. This often happens when special events such as major sporting events, music concerts or festivals take place. Anyone who has ever tried to send a photo during major events may already be familiar with this problem. This under- and overcapacity is mainly due to the separation of the network infrastructure of the different CSP. Each CSP exclusively lets its own customer base use the network infrastructure.

Not only the missing infrastructure is a problem for CSPs.

For the use cases already outlined, facilities or assets need to be procured or leased from various players in the country / territory concerned (e.g., tower or spectrum providers). Due to the lack of trust between the involved actors and the fact that there are usually no long-term relationships or commitments between the companies, such transactions are practically impossible and cannot be solved by the CSPs without a very large effort.

DLT is inherently based on immutability, transparency and is traceable to any actor. This creates trust and enables instantaneous transactions. These characteristics are predestined for solving the described use cases. Therefore the goal of the project is to find the necessary infrastructure for the CSPs and be able to deploy it quickly and with minimal effort while providing a service that meets all the requirements of the customers.

IOTA wants to solve all these problems with the “Telco Asset Marketplace”

In such a marketplace, all the described assets (network infrastructure) could be offered by different providers for potential buyers. Increased flexibility in this distribution process would definitely stimulate and benefit the market. A new business model also emerges in which two new types of stakeholders appear, the sellers of unused capacity of their own network infrastructure and the buyers who buy up this unused capacity in order to be able to offer their own customers the contracted services at any place and at any time.

The seller does not have to be one of the large CSPs; it can be anyone who can develop and deliver a mobile service. This is a good opportunity for small and medium-sized companies offering innovative transmission technologies to provide their services to a larger customer base in a straightforward way. Especially with the new 5G networks and the accompanying service-based architectures, the concept of “Infrastructure as a Service” will be a future innovation driver.

What are the major benefits of such a marketplace?

By sharing assets (network infrastructure), CSPs can reduce their ongoing operational costs by flexibly selling or buying additional capacity as needed; underutilized assets are no longer a problem for CSPs.

Large events or future events that require a large mobile Internet bandwidth (virtual reality, augmented reality) cannot be handled by today’s CSPs with their own network infrastructure in most cases alone. Moreover CSPs and also the event organizers cannot afford to provide the required infrastructure temporarily and ad hoc. However, the situation could change if various CSPs or other service providers offer unused spectrum, cell towers, drones and WiFi infrastructure for sale on this marketplace for a limited time.

In countries with insufficient network infrastructure, CSPs could buy services to provide a network without dead spots.

Why does such a marketplace need to be decentralized?

Without the decentralized IOTA technologies, each CSP with today’s digital capabilities could build its own marketplace where service providers can search for and request the resources they need. However, as each CSP then creates its own marketplace, the resulting fragmentation, will negate the benefits of a single marketplace. Offers would have to be published and searched on different marketplaces, and the results from different platforms would have to be processed and evaluated. This significantly increases the complexity of identifying offers. In addition, the required payments would be made across different systems; increased administrative effort and higher costs must then be expected due to the many different accounts.

Instead of fragmenting, there needs to be a marketplace that is shared by all CSPs but owned by no one. A transparent, open marketplace with permissionless access for all, where both assets (network infrastructure) and service providers publish their offers and requests, and where automated matching and payment processing with tamper-proof audit trails are provided.

This will mainly provide the following benefits:

  • Real-time bids and requests and optimal asset allocation (network infrastructure). 
  • Reducing the ongoing fixed costs of each asset and thus maximizing the ROI (Return of Investment) for asset providers
  • Always the best asset selection for service providers
  • A unique payment system via IOTA tokens to accelerate access to assets
  • An easy-to-audit audit trail and quick release of usage agreements, also easy for accountants to control

However, there are also obstacles to the development of such a versatile market. First, the lack of trust and difficult accountability over who is providing what, under what conditions, and who is accessing it. Second, the distribution of revenues and the tracking of liabilities in case of abuse. To overcome these obstacles, the IOTA-based Telco Asset Marketplace was developed.

Source: TM Forum

More Details

Official Homepage

Whitepaper: A DLT-based Data Trust enabling Business Assurance for CSPs Platforms Federation


Original source

Industry Marketplace

Header Marketplaces

This article is a translation of the German IOTA Beginner’s Guide by Schmucklos.

Industry Marketplace

In collaboration with its partners ECLASS, WeWash, Neoception, Otto von Guericke University and Helmut Schmidt University, the IOTA Foundation developed the world’s first cross-manufacturer and cross-industry decentralized virtual industrial marketplace for fully autonomous trading of services as well as physical and digital goods.

Source: IOTA Foundation

The next generation of industrial automation, Industry 4.0 (I4.0), is increasingly coming into focus for all companies. In the future, devices and machines will not only manage information about assets, but proactively initiate decision-making and optimization algorithms, such as the purchase of goods and services required for the production process. I4.0 devices, with their goal-directed behavior, can be seen as autonomous independent economic actors cooperating according to market principles.

The highly flexible value networks resulting from I4.0 require new forms of cooperation between companies – both on a national and global level. The successful implementation of I4.0 depends on the creation of a common global communication and computing infrastructure that enables economic relationships between people and machines.

Industry Marketplace
Source: IOTA Foundation

The semantic Industry 4.0 Marketplace is an important piece of the puzzle for building this needed infrastructure. The marketplace leverages IOTA’s distributed ledger technology for confidential, tamper-proof data transmission.. IOTA technology also serves as a payment system, enabling improved connectivity between people, machines, and machine-readable contracts. In addition to IOTA technology, the marketplace uses the ECLASS ISO / IEC industry standard to exchange standardized master data with each other. ECLASS is a global reference data standard for the classification and one-to-one description of products and services. It is the standard language for industrial companies, for a faster and more reliable exchange of product information without regard to organizational structure or language barriers. ECLASS offers product data for 44 industries and has established itself internationally as the only ISO / IEC standard-compliant cross-industry industry standard. More than 3,500 companies worldwide already benefit from using ECLASS.

Source: IOTA Foundation
Source: IOTA Foundation

More Details

Official Homepage

IOTA Foundation launches Industry Marketplace – IF

How to get Started With the IOTA Industry Marketplace: A Step-by-Step Guide – IF


Github Repository


Original source


Header IOTA Ecosystem


This article gives an overview over some of the most important Hardware integrations of IOTA.


STMicroelectronics offers the X-CUBE-IOTA1, an expansion software package based on the STM32Cube to facilitate portability between different STM32 microcontrollers. STMCube is a software platform for developers and is designed to reduce developer workload, time and cost. It includes the STM32CubeMX graphical software configuration tool, which can be used to generate C-initialization code using graphical wizards, and a comprehensive range of evaluation tools that allow users to easily start their own software development projects. The extension software package X-CUBE-IOTA1 contains a middleware that enables all functions of the IOTA Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT).

Source: IOTA Foundation

Main features X-CUBE-IOTA1

  • Complete middleware for building IOTA Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) applications for STM32-based boards
  • Easy portability across different MCU families thanks to STM32Cube
  • Examples to better understand the development of an IOTA DLT application
  • Includes STM32CubeMX project file (.ioc) for graphical visualization of STM32 microcontroller pins, peripherals and middleware configuration.
  • Free, user-friendly license terms

More Details

IOTA Links with STMicroelectronics to Accelerate IoT Technology Integration – IF

Secure and Effective Implementation of an IOTA Light Node using STM32 – STM

Bosch XDK2MAM 

Bosch XDK (Cross Domain Development Kit) is a programmable sensor device and prototyping platform for almost every conceivable use case of the Internet of Things. With XDK2MAM a simple and well documented solution was created, that allows the Bosch XDK to connect to the IOTA Tangle via HTTP, MQTT or BLE. Masked Authenticated Messaging (MAM) enables data to be transmitted peer-to-peer over a secure, encrypted channel. Thus, data subscribers can trust the source and integrity of data, even if the identity of the source is masked.


Three potential use cases for the use of XDK in future data marketplaces could be:

  • Rent out machines and measure the exact usage time of the machine and bill the customer accordingly using IOTA
  • The XDK verifies that a machine is operating under proper conditions and sets up data transactions on the DLT to do so
  • The XDK is used for an audit trail. If data needs to be transmitted securely under certain conditions, the XDK can monitor this. DLT creates a paperless record that all parties can follow.


IOT2TANGLE (former team of XDK2MAM) is an open source hub to integrate IoT devices and IOTA.

The team creates open source code for some of the most commonly used IoT devices such as Raspberry Pi, ESP32, STM32, Bosch XDK110 and others. At the same time, they are making their hub available to the community so they can share their own integrations. A device with built-in sensors or a board is selected and the I2T sensor package including the code created is provided so that the sensor data is sent to the Tangle via IOTA Streams.
The I2T Hub shares the entire code base, which allows data to flow from sensors to streams while improving the experience for everyone. There are numerous benefits for the community who may want to improve their own projects.
The I2T team invites the open source community to share their integrations and support the Streams community.



More Details

Welcome to IOT2TANGLE – Medium

Official Homepage


RIDDLE & CODE is a hardware manufacturer that creates a secure environment for business processes, allowing only the reliable data from trusted sources for further processing. To ensure this, RIDDLE & CODE gives IoT devices a unique non-modifiable identity by implanting a trusted encrypted microchip (cryptochip) as soon as a network-enabled device is manufactured.

The partnership between IOTA and RIDDLE & CODE has significantly expanded the functionality of possible connected devices to the IOTA ecosystem. Both companies want to demonstrate that by integrating IOTA’s Tangle, autonomous machine-to-machine transactions can be handled completely, independently and securely.

More Details

IF and RIDDLE&CODE Partner to Enable the Industrial Internet of Things – IF

IOTA Crypto Core FPGA

This project aims to eliminate the problems of energy-efficient execution of IOTA core functions and ternary control of binary asics on a hardware basis. Leading this project is hardware and software specialist Thomas Pototschnig (MicroEngineer).

The goal of his project is to develop several modules to enable existing or new embedded systems (using Asics) to perform core IOTA functions in a fast, secure and energy-efficient way. Because the same code can later be provided as an ASIC, when developing ASICs, its functions are tested beforehand in test systems, which are mostly FPGAs.

More Details

IOTA Crypto Core FPGA — Final Report – Medium


IOTA ESP32 Wallet

ESP32 is a whole product family of differently configured SoC (System-on-Chip). SoCs combine most or even all functions of a system like graphics card, RAM etc. on a single chip. Such chips enable extremely small and energy-efficient systems, as if made for the IoT and IOTA. However, there is little that can be done with the chip alone, which is why Espressif offers differently configured development boards to directly connect external components such as an antenna, a micro SD card slot or a micro USB port for power supply. Wherever smart controls would theoretically make sense, an ESP32-based board could be a cost-effective and efficient solution.

On August 17, 2019, IF announced the successful wallet implementation in an ESP32 SoC. This means that all devices with such an ESP32 SoC will be able to communicate with the IOTA Tangle.

More Details

IOTA ESP32 Wallet – IF